Shimla Agreement Text
At the end of the historic summit, India and Pakistan signed the Lahore Declaration, a bilateral agreement and a governance treaty that was to be ratified by the parliaments of both countries in the same year. As mentioned 27 years earlier in the Simla Agreement, the Lahore Declaration notably confirmed the need to resolve the Kashmir issue bilaterally. The agreement did not prevent relations between the two countries from deteriorating until the armed conflict, the last time during the 1999 Kargil war. In Operation Meghdoot of 1984, India seized the entire inhospitable region of the Siachens Glacier, where the border was clearly not defined in the agreement (perhaps because the area was considered too arid to be controversial); This was considered by Pakistan to be a violation of the Simla agreement. Most of the subsequent deaths in the Siachen conflict were caused by natural disasters. B, like the avalanches of 2010, 2012 and 2016. This agreement is ratified by both countries in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures and enters into force from the date of exchange of ratification instruments.  (iii) Withdrawals begin with the demins of this agreement and are concluded within thirty days.  On 2 July 1972, the two countries agreed. The main clauses of the Simla agreement are: while Kashmir spoke only of “maintaining the line of control,” a clause was added to India`s insistence that the two countries would settle their differences only through “peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or other peaceful means agreed upon,” Guha writes. This theoretically excludes third-party mediation in Kashmir. Recalling his agreement of 23 September 1998 that an environment of peace and security is in the supreme national interest of both sides and that the resolution of all outstanding issues, including Jammu and Kashmir, is essential to this end.
[Reprinted from the text of the Indian Embassy in Washington, D.C. In 2003, Musharraf called for a ceasefire during the LoC. India accepted its proposal and put into effect on 25 November a ceasefire agreement, the first formal ceasefire since the start of the insurgency in Kashmir. Given the situation that required an agreement between the Indian and Pakistani leaders, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Pakistani president was invited to a summit in Simla during the last week of June 1972. The summit was to lead to a peace treaty that was to lead to the withdrawal of troops and the return of prisoners of war after the 1971 war. The summit conference between Bhutto and Indra Gandhi opened in Simla on the agreed date. The summit conference was held from June 28 to July 2, 1972. The objective of the agreement was to define the measures envisaged to normalize bilateral relations and to resolve mutual disputes through peaceful means and bilateral negotiations. India wanted to solve all the problems in one package, so it proposed a treaty of friendship that required the two countries to refrain from the use of force in dispute resolution, not to interfere in each other`s internal affairs, not to participate in the settlement of their disputes and to renounce military alliances directed against each other. Pakistan wanted to focus on issues as immediate as the release of prisoners of war, the withdrawal of troops and the resumption of diplomatic relations.